Download PDF by Mathew L. Lynch, Patrick T. Spicer: Bicontinuous Liquid Crystals (Surfactant Science)

By Mathew L. Lynch, Patrick T. Spicer

ISBN-10: 1574444492

ISBN-13: 9781574444490

With the improvement of numerous analytical chemistry suggestions, the invention of wealthy and various homes relating bicontinuous liquid crystal buildings has yielded helpful purposes in drugs, purchaser items, fabrics technology, and biotechnology. proposing contributions from 24 specialists all over the world, Bicontinuous Liquid Crystals provides a accomplished review of those constructions with a realistic method of using them in production and laboratory methods. This publication considers the cubic, mesh, ribbon, and sponge equilibrium stages of bicontinuous buildings. It starts with a ancient standpoint and a theoretical platform for examine, through a close dialogue of actual chemistry, houses, and structural features of the several levels. The textual content interrelates the main worthy analytical tools for the characterization of the habit and balance of liquid crystalline stages in line with constitution, geometry, composition-dependent adjustments, temperature, dispersion, and different components. those ideas comprise differential geometry, thermodynamics, neighborhood and worldwide packing, and the examine of conformational entropy. The publication additionally highlights instruments for mathematically visualizing bicontinuous structures. this offers a good origin for the authors' exam of the most recent reports and functions, resembling managed free up, fabrics improvement, fabrication, processing, polymerization, protein crystallization, membrane fusion, and remedy of human pores and skin. Bicontinuous Liquid Crystals represents present developments and cutting edge rules within the learn of bicontinuous liquid crystals. Divided into 3 sections, it offers an entire evaluate of theoretical and modeling elements, actual chemistry and characterization, and functions during this energetic box of study.

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The nodal surface of this wave function is: F(100) (cos2πx + cos2πy + cos2πz) = 0 The volume on each side of this PNS within the unit cell will be identical. It is also evident that this wave function will exhibit the smallest possible surface area as the index (100) represents the longest wavelength of the elements contributing to the electron density. It is therefore not surprising that this PNS will be very close to the minimal surface with the same symmetry, which is the P-surface. The D-surface is obtained from the (111)-structure factor and the G-surface from the structure factor with index (110), when the 8 Larsson actual symmetry is taken into account (directly available from The International Tables of Crystallography).

Kékicheff and Tiddy [23] showed that a tetragonal mesh intermediate phase, Mh1(I4mm) {Tα} exists in the lithium perfluorooctanoate (LiPFO)/water system. The lamellar phase above the Mh1(I4mm) phase also appeared to contain random water-filled defects (an unpublished observation by the authors while studying the synchrotron scattering recorded in the Mh1(I4mm) phase). 24 Holmes and Leaver The authors noted the higher viscosity of the correlated mesh over the lamellar phase, explaining this in terms of the node associated with one junction zone fitting over the hole in the layer below, restricting the sliding of one mesh layer past another.

J Am Chem Soc 101:5465–5470, 1979. 6. K Larsson, K Fontell, N Krog. Chem Phys Lipids 27:321–328, 1980. 7. LE Scriven. Nature 263:173–175, 1976. 8. S Andersson, ST Hyde, K Larsson, S Lidin. Chem Rev 88:221–242, 1988. 9. W Longley, TJ McIntosh. Nature 303:612–613, 1983. Bicontinuous Cubic Liquid Crystalline Materials 13 10. K Larsson. Nature 304:664, 1983. 11. ST Hyde, S Andersson, B Ericsson, K Larsson. Z Kristallogr 168:213–219, 1984. 12. P Garstecki, R Holyst. Langmuir 18:2519–2528, 2002. 13. P Garstecki, R Holyst.

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Bicontinuous Liquid Crystals (Surfactant Science) by Mathew L. Lynch, Patrick T. Spicer

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