By Radhika Herzberger
The Viikyapadiya of Bhartrhari and the Pramii1Jasamuccaya of Dignaga • are seminal texts within the historical past of old Indian philosophy. One textual content bargains with grammar, the opposite with common sense, either are the paintings of devoted metaphysicians. Written inside a span of lower than 100 years, among the 5th and the 6th centuries A.D., those texts have normally been handled individually, as representing self sustaining faculties of suggestion. This essay makes an attempt to interpret those texts together, as a discussion among a grammarian and a philosopher. this fashion of coming near near those texts highlights unforeseen aspects of Bhartrhari's and Dignaga's theories of language and is meant to spot the person achievements of every. exceptionally, this remedy is an workout in writing the highbrow heritage of a interval in time, instead of a historical past of a college of philosophy. the existing view of Bhartrhari holds that his linguistic thoughts should not intrinsic to his metaphysics. The conclusions reached within the current essay are that Bhartrhari's metaphysics underlie his linguistic suggestions and articulate their presuppositions. the existing view of Dignaga continues that for him language bargains with illusory entities and needs to falsify what's genuine. The conclusions reached within the current essay are that Dignaga's logical principles are designed to make sure that in utilizing language one isn't dedicated to a trust in fictional entities. My debt to trendy scholarship within the box is considerable.
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Additional info for Bhartṛhari and the Buddhists: An Essay in the Development of Fifth and Sixth Century Indian Thought
Constraints become necessary when the injunction does not lay down specific means or when the means laid down are not available. The injunction may say: "Tie up the beast" or it might say, "Tie up the beast to a post made of paliisa" and a post made of paliisa may be unavailable. The priest is then forced to consider substitutes. The observation that the verb "to tie" (bandh) has semantic expectations (iikiink~ii) for objects of a certain kind such as tree trunks, pegs and posts, narrows the range of possible substitutes.
The relation of the word with the external individual is looser, and is compared to the relation between garments and dyes. Thus the query, raised by Helaraja in his introductory remarks to the stanza, is answered by giving an account of the new theory in terms which are drawn out of the earlier one. Just as a name properly belonging to an individual x is transferred BHART~HARI ON INDIVIDUALS AND UNIVERSALS 33 to an individual y because of a certain relation x bears to y, so also the universal belonging in a name is transferred onto a universal belonging in a thing because of a certain relation, namely contact (san:zyoga).
The problem of finding substitutes for materials prescribed in the context of certain rituals must have become acute as the Indo-European BHART~HARI ON INDIVIDUALS AND UNIVERSALS 19 tribes migrated east. The problem was two-fold: to find substitutes and to justify their substitution, ensuring that the Vedic injunction prescribing the ritual is not violated. The latter requirement meant that constraints on the choice of substitutes had to be grounded in actual words of Vedic injunctions. This problem is addressed by Bhartrhari in JS3-5.
Bhartṛhari and the Buddhists: An Essay in the Development of Fifth and Sixth Century Indian Thought by Radhika Herzberger