By E. Fuller Torrey M.D., Robert H. Yolken M.D.
People have lived in shut proximity to different animals for hundreds of thousands of years. contemporary medical reviews have even proven that the presence of animals has a favorable influence on our actual and psychological future health. humans with pets in most cases have decrease blood strain, express fewer indicators of melancholy, and have a tendency to get extra exercise.But there's a darker part to the connection among animals and people. Animals are vendors of damaging infectious brokers and the resource of a myriad of human illnesses. lately, the emergence of high-profile health problems comparable to AIDS, SARS, West Nile virus, and chook flu has drawn a lot public realization, yet as E. Fuller Torrey and Robert H. Yolken demonstrate, the move of lethal microbes from animals to people is neither a brand new nor an simply shunned problem.Beginning with the domestication of cattle approximately 10,000 years in the past, Beasts of the Earth strains the ways in which human-animal touch has developed through the years. at the present time, shared residing quarters, overlapping ecosystems, and experimental surgical practices the place organs or tissues are transplanted from non-humans into people proceed to open new avenues for the transmission of infectious brokers. different adjustments in human habit like elevated air commute, computerized foodstuff processing, and threats of bioterrorism are expanding the contagion issue via transporting microbes additional distances and to greater populations in nearly no time at all.While the authors urge undefined greater knowing of previous ailments may also help us reduce the severity of a few health problems, additionally they warn that, given our more and more crowded planet, it's not a query of if but if and the way frequently animal-transmitted ailments will pose severe demanding situations to human health and wellbeing sooner or later.
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Additional resources for Beasts Of The Earth: Animals, Humans, And Disease
Recent studies have established that humans were ﬁrst infected with Taenia tapeworms in Africa during the Paleolithic period. 14 Taenia saginata and Taenia solium infect humans when they ingest Taenia eggs in uncooked or undercooked beef or pork. In most cases, tapeworms cause no clinical symptoms, but in some individuals they cause abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and weight loss. A serious complication of Taenia solium is cysticercosis, in which numerous cysts go to the brain or eye, causing seizures or impaired vision.
The wild ancestors of both lived in the Fertile Crescent, especially in the Zagros Mountains in what is now western Iraq. Domestication would not have been difﬁcult, since both sheep and goats follow a dominant leader. They also have relatively placid natures, breed easily in captivity, and eat a wide variety of shrubs and grasses. Evidence that suggests the domestication of sheep has been found at a site in northern Iraq that dates to almost eleven thousand years ago. 17 The problem with ﬁxing such dates with any certainty is one of deﬁnitions.
Many of these microbes had also infected the mammalian ancestors of primates and even the premammalian ancestors, such as reptiles and birds. Human diseases such as herpes infections, hepatitis A and B, malaria, yellow fever, and endogenous retroviral infections are thus heirloom infections, part of our birthright as humans. Most worrisome about heirloom infections is what we do not know. Most microbes that are part of the human legacy are harmless, and we live with them in negotiated peace. The emergence of human herpesvirus 8 as a cause of Kaposi’s sarcoma in individuals with AIDS, when the immune system has been devastated, has given us pause.
Beasts Of The Earth: Animals, Humans, And Disease by E. Fuller Torrey M.D., Robert H. Yolken M.D.