By Goran Bergman
I. advent 3
II. tools 7
1. fabric and means of recording 7
2. movie research 7
three. The meteorological info 9
III. The id of the migrants 10
IV. the rate and course of migration thirteen
1. the rate of flight and its dependence on a number of exterior and internal
2. The path of migration and the standards affecting it 21
three. The effect of topographical components at the course 36
V. The influence of meteorological elements at the depth of migration 44
1. power and path of the wind 45
2. Cloudiness 47
three. Visibility 49
four. Temperature 50
VI. The geographical distribution of the migration 50
References fifty seven
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Additional resources for An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland
1 5) . This also occurs in daylight under conditions when there is a haze or a low fog over the coast. Then nearly all the flocks of Common Scoters and mostly also the Long-tailed Ducks continue their flight undisturbed over land. Typical examples of the routes taken by the migrants under various external conditions in the Helsingfors-Porkala area are given in Fig. 16 A-H (day migration) and Fig. 1 7 A-D (night migration) . A marked effect on the migration is exerted by particularly conspicuous coastal configurations as, for instance, narrow bays and capes protruding into the sea.
0 and 42. 1° and thus very close to each other considering the 3 34 G. Bergman & K. 0. Donne r : Spring migration assumptions involved in this procedure. For this reason statistical treatment has not either been carried out. Although conclusive evidence about the variation of the fundamental direction of migration is not obtained in this way, the result suggests that if there are deviations from year to year these are likely to be of small magnitude. 13 C Fig. refers to the material obtained from the area to the south of the Hango peninsula.
During such conditions the number of flocks crossing the coast at Viborg or even at the Isthmus of Karella may be assumed to be considerable, whereas with predominating southern and eastern ·winds and low ,;sibility this number is reduced. The weak migration that even \"\;th \V and N winds is observed in the inner parts of southern Finland is, as far as can be j udged from the radar films, constituted by flocks that have crossed the coast between Hango and Abo, as well as by flocks that have been resting on some of the numerous lakes.
An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland by Goran Bergman