By F.B. de Walle, J. Sevenster
In this learn, an summary is gifted of agricultural regulations on manure and minerals, in terms of the Nitrate Directive to therapy over the top floor- and groundwater illness from extensive agricultural practices. Six international locations belonging to the eu Union have been studied: the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany and the uk. The rules and their criminal incorporation have been on the topic of agricultural and environmental stipulations in every one state. additionally, a list was once made from agricultural mineral poli cies within the usa and Canada. stipulations for cattle farming in North the US range significantly from these in Europe, yet their strategies shed a special mild on ecu rules. examine has proven that there are nonetheless very enormous mineral surpluses in lots of international locations and areas. In either the Netherlands and within the Flemish a part of Belgium, latest difficulties because of very excessive degrees of manure construction are structural instead of neighborhood and can't simply be solved via shipping of manure to different areas. To a lesser volume. Germany, Denmark and comparatively small elements of France (Brittany) and the uk, nonetheless exceed the norms for an equilibrium fertilization. In Denmark, latest difficulties can most likely be solved in the latest legislative framework. The Netherlands, Flanders. a number of German Lander (Nordrhein-Westfalen and Schleswig-Holstein) and Brittany.
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Additional resources for Agriculture and the Environment: Minerals, Manure and Measures
The differences in these results are difficult to interpret, because they are not directly compatible; however, they do suggest moderate levels of reduction over a 7-10 year period, with a slight increase in N-surplus in recent years. 15 Nitrogen and phosphorus surplus 1985-1992. 5 011985-1990) 0(1985-1990) 67 19 42 20 11985-1990) 20 15 (1985-1993) 17 (1985-1993) , Original Federal States only. b Original and New Federal States. Per hectare of land used (crops and grassland) without alpine pastures, para-agriculture enclosed.
In the Netherlands, concern about phosphate has been relatively high, compared to other countries, because phosphate-saturated soils are a common problem in the sandy regions in the south and east of the country. In the EU, the main emphasis is placed on controlling nitrogen sources to protect drinking water quality. In the Netherlands both elements are creating environmental pressures. Use of mineral fertilizer Utilization of mineral fertilizer in the Netherlands is very high compared to other European countries, particularly in grassland areas and greenhouse horticulture fertilizer (315 versus 835 kg N/ha).
During the next two years, the calculation of phosphate losses will exclude phosphates from mineral fertilizer; after 2000, phosphates from both manure and fertilizer will be included. The acceptable loss norms will also be lowered, which means that after 2000 norms will be lowered and levies will go up, incentives for more substantial reductions. Experiments are being considered with integrated environmental licences, in order to reduce the burden of regulation, both on farmers and on the government.
Agriculture and the Environment: Minerals, Manure and Measures by F.B. de Walle, J. Sevenster