Download PDF by National Research Council: A New Biology for the 21st Century

By National Research Council

ISBN-10: 0309144884

ISBN-13: 9780309144889

Now greater than ever, biology has the capability to give a contribution functional recommendations to the various significant demanding situations confronting the USA and the realm. a brand new Biology for the twenty first Century recommends "New Biology" approach--one that depends upon better integration inside biology, and nearer collaboration with actual, computational, and earth scientists, mathematicians and engineers--be used to discover recommendations to 4 key societal wishes: sustainable foodstuff creation, atmosphere recovery, optimized biofuel creation, and development in human overall healthiness. The technique demands a coordinated attempt to leverage assets around the federal, deepest, and educational sectors to aid meet demanding situations and increase the go back on existence technological know-how study more often than not.

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All rights reserved. html HOW THE NEW BIOLOGY CAN ADDRESS SOCIETAL CHALLENGES 35 methodologies are being developed that can detect, synthesize, and process complex biological information at a network level, image cellular events in real time, delineate how proteins interact, and access single sites within the DNA library of the cell. Computational and modeling approaches are beginning to allow analysis of these complex systems, with the ultimate goal of predicting how variations in individual components affect the function of the overall system.

The challenges laid out in this chapter are analogous to that of placing a man on the moon––the technologies do not all yet exist, there are still fundamental gaps in understanding—but the committee believes that a relatively small investment could reap enormous returns in each of these major societal challenge areas. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. html HOW THE NEW BIOLOGY CAN ADDRESS SOCIETAL CHALLENGES 21 A New Biology Approach to the Food Challenge: Generate food plants to adapt and grow sustainably in changing environments The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that 923 million people were undernourished in 2007, an increase of 75 million over the 2003–2005 estimate of 848 million (FAO, 2008).

Biofuel today is made by using fermentation to convert starch from corn into ethanol. S. corn crop is used for ethanol production (USDA, 2009). As a result of the application of biotechnology to agriculture, per-acre corn yields are increasing at 2 to 3 percent per year (Egli, 2008). Grain alone, however, will not allow dramatic expansion of biofuel production, and must be supplemented, and ultimately replaced, with other sources of biomass. Development of energy crops that are direct sources of fermentable sugars, such as sugarcane or sweet sorghum, or sources of cellulosic materials, such as switchgrass, miscanthus, or agricultural and forestry byproducts, is an important priority.

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A New Biology for the 21st Century by National Research Council

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