By Enrico Perla B.Sc. Computer Science University of Torino M.Sc. Computer Science Trinity College Dublin, Massimiliano Oldani
A advisor to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the center discusses the theoretical thoughts and techniques had to boost trustworthy and powerful kernel-level exploits, and applies them to assorted working platforms, particularly, UNIX derivatives, Mac OS X, and home windows. suggestions and strategies are offered categorically in order that even if a in particular specific vulnerability has been patched, the foundational info supplied might help hackers in writing a more recent, larger assault; or support pen testers, auditors, etc boost a extra concrete layout and protective constitution.
The ebook is equipped into 4 components. half I introduces the kernel and units out the theoretical foundation on which to construct the remainder of the booklet. half II specializes in diversified working platforms and describes exploits for them that focus on a variety of computer virus periods. half III on distant kernel exploitation analyzes the consequences of the distant state of affairs and offers new ideas to focus on distant concerns. It incorporates a step by step research of the improvement of a competent, one-shot, distant take advantage of for a true vulnerabilitya malicious program affecting the SCTP subsystem present in the Linux kernel. eventually, half IV wraps up the research on kernel exploitation and appears at what the long run may perhaps hold.
- Covers a number of working procedure households ― UNIX derivatives, Mac OS X, Windows
- Details universal situations comparable to ordinary reminiscence corruption (stack overflow, heap overflow, etc.) matters, logical insects and race conditions
- Delivers the reader from user-land exploitation to the realm of kernel-land (OS) exploits/attacks, with a selected specialize in the stairs that result in the production of profitable suggestions, which will provide to the reader whatever greater than only a set of tricks
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Additional resources for A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core
An example of this can be seen at , even if in this snippet of code nothing is written to the buffer and “only” memory outside it is referenced. Notwithstanding this, this is a very good example of the type of code path you should hunt for in case of an integer overflow. Sign Conversion Issues Sign conversion issues occur when the same value is erroneously evaluated first as an unsigned integer and then as a signed one (or vice versa). In fact, the same value at the bit level can mean different things depending on whether it is of a signed or unsigned type.
This approach is called brute forcing, and it is time- and usually resource-intensive (imagine having to do that from a remote machine). Also, it is generally inelegant. As we said, a good exploit writer will resort to brute forcing only when it is necessary to achieve maximum reliability, and will always try to reduce as much as possible the maximum number of tries he or she attempts to trigger the shellcode. A very common approach in this case is to increase the number of “good addresses” that the attacker can jump to by extending the shellcode with a sequence of no operation (NOP) or NOP-like instructions in front of it.
Compilers are an interesting target for patches: how better to protect your code than by including defenses directly inside it? com/projects/security/ssp/). Generalpurpose libraries are another interesting place for patches: they are a part of all dynamic linked binaries and they contain sensible subsystems such as the memory allocator. An example of a project that includes all of these kinds of patches is the ExecShield project by Red Hat/Fedora. A For example, at compile time, the compiler knows the size of certain buffers and can use this information to take a call to an unsafe function such as strcpy and redirect it to a safe function such as strncpy.
A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core by Enrico Perla B.Sc. Computer Science University of Torino M.Sc. Computer Science Trinity College Dublin, Massimiliano Oldani